Thoth is the Ancient Egyptian God of writing, magic, wisdom, and the moon. The worship of Thoth began in Lower Egypt most likely during the Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) and continued through the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE) which was the last dynastic era of Ancient Egyptian history. Thus the worship and veneration of Thoth was among the longest of all the Egyptian gods or any deity from any civilization.
Thoth’s Egyptian name, Djehuty, means “He Who is Like the Ibis, which was a sacred bird associated with wisdom. He is most commonly depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a seated baboon with or without a lunar disc above his head. Thoth’s epithets include “Lord of Ma’at”, “Lord of Divine Words” and “Scribe of Ma’at in the Company of the Gods.”
The following is a hymn to Thoth inscribed on the tomb of Petosiris, the high priest of Thoth at Hermopolis.
HYMN TO THOTH
O my twice-great master Thoth,
the only God who has no equal,
who sees and hears whomsoever passes,
who knows whomsoever is drawing near,
with the knowledge of everything that happens!
You have made my heart walk upon your waters,
He who walks on your road will never stumble.
O people living on this Earth, and those yet to be born,
ye who come to this mountain,
ye who see this tomb and pass by it.
Come, I will guide you on the road of life,
you will sail with a favorable wind, without accidents,
and you will arrive at the abode of the city of generations.
The road of the man who obeys Thoth [God] is straight,
happy is he whose heart urges him to follow it!
To walk on the road of God is to be filled with light,
great are the advantages gained by those who
discipline themselves to follow it.
It is a monument raised by them on this Earth,
that those who follow the paths of God,
those who cling to the ways of God,
spend all their lives in joy, gathering riches without equal.
Thoth, the God of knowledge, rewards every act according to its own merit.
As you act so shall you be treated.
To speak a good word is to build a monument.
Happiness is to be found in observing Ma’at.
The West beyond the horizon is the dwelling place for he who has not transgressed the law,
happy is who reaches there!
Nobody can reach there unless their hearts have conformed exactly to the law.
Down there there is no distinction between rich and poor,
unless it is in the favor of he who is found to be righteous
when weighted in the scales of justice before the master of eternity.